K465 Alloy Powder

K465 alloy powder is a nickel-based superalloy that offers high strength and corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. It is widely used in aerospace, power generation, and chemical processing industries.


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K465 Alloy Powder: Composition, Properties, Applications, and Specifications

K465 has become a popular choice for aerospace, power generation, and chemical processing industries where components are subjected to high temperatures or aggressive environments. It allows complex geometries to be 3D printed for optimal performance.

This article provides detailed information on the composition, properties, applications, specifications, availability, processing, and comparisons of K465 superalloy powder for additive manufacturing.

K465 Alloy Powder Composition

The nominal composition of K465 nickel-based superalloy powder is given below:

Element Weight %
Nickel (Ni) Balance
Chromium (Cr) 15 – 17%
Cobalt (Co) 9 – 10%
Molybdenum (Mo) 3%
Tantalum (Ta) 4.5 – 5.5%
Aluminum (Al) 5 – 6%
Titanium (Ti) 0.5 – 1%
Boron (B) 0.01% max
Carbon (C) 0.03% max
Zirconium (Zr) 0.01% max
Niobium (Nb) 1% max

Nickel forms the base of the alloy and provides a face-centered cubic matrix for high temperature strength. Elements like chromium, cobalt, and molybdenum contribute to solid solution strengthening and enable precipitation hardening.

Aluminum and titanium are added to form gamma prime precipitates Ni3(Al,Ti) to provide hardness and creep resistance up to 700°C. Tantalum provides solid solution strengthening and forms carbides for grain structure control. Boron facilitates precipitation of complex carbides.

The balanced composition of K465 nickel superalloy powder results in a combination of strength, ductility, corrosion resistance, and weldability required for high performance additive manufactured components. The optimized levels of alloying elements can be tailored based on final part requirements.

K465 Alloy Powder Properties

K465 superalloy powder processed via laser powder bed fusion or electron beam melting exhibits the following properties in as-built and heat treated states:

Mechanical Properties

Property As-Built Condition After Heat Treatment
Tensile Strength 1050 – 1250 MPa 1150 – 1350 MPa
Yield Strength 750 – 950 MPa 1000 – 1200 MPa
Elongation 10 – 25% 8 – 15%
Hardness 35 – 45 HRC 42 – 48 HRC
  • High strength levels comparable to cast and wrought Ni-based superalloys
  • Ductility retained after heat treatment allows some forming/forging
  • Precipitation hardening by gamma prime phase after solution treatment

Physical Properties

Property Value
Density 8.1 – 8.3 g/cc
Melting Point 1260 – 1350°C
Thermal Conductivity 11 – 16 W/m-K
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 12 – 16 x 10<sup>-6</sup> /K

High Temperature Properties

Property Value
Service Temperature Up to 700°C
Oxidation Resistance Good up to 850°C
Phase Stability Retains strength up to 70% of melting point
Creep Rupture Strength 140 MPa at 700°C for 1000 hours
  • Retains over half its strength at maximum service temperature
  • Resists oxidation and hot corrosion in gas turbine environments
  • Excellent creep rupture strength under load at high temperature

Other Notable Properties

  • Weldable using conventional fusion welding methods
  • Good surface finish and dimensional accuracy in AM builds
  • Customizable with different heat treatments
  • High thermal fatigue and crack growth resistance

The balanced set of mechanical, physical, and thermal properties make K465 suitable for extreme environments faced in aerospace engines, power generation systems, and chemical processing equipment. The properties can be fine-tuned based on application requirements.

K465 Alloy Powder Applications

The major applications of additive manufactured K465 superalloy parts include:


  • Combustor liners,augmentors, flame holders in jet engines
  • Structural brackets, frames, housings, fittings
  • Hot section components like turbine blades and vanes
  • Rocket propulsion systems and spacecraft engines

Power Generation:

  • Heat exchangers, piping, valves, manifolds in boilers and heat recovery systems
  • Gas turbine hot gas path components like nozzles, shrouds
  • Solar power receivers and collectors


  • Turbocharger wheels and housings
  • Exhaust system manifolds and components

Chemical Processing:

  • Reformer tubes, reaction vessels, heat exchanger components
  • Piping, valves, pumps for corrosive chemicals
  • Tooling like mandrels, fixtures for composite parts


  • Withstands sustained use at over 700°C lower density than competing alloys
  • Oxidation and corrosion resistance in hot gas environments
  • Reduces component weight compared to cast nickel alloys
  • Enables complex optimized geometries not possible with casting
  • Consolidates multiple parts into one printed component
  • Saves material waste relative to subtractive methods
  • Shorter lead times compared to traditional processing

K465 is frequently used as substitute for heavier, costlier superalloys in aerospace engines and land-based power systems. The alloy powder can be tailored to meet requirements in extreme temperature, pressure, and corrosive service conditions.

K465 Alloy Powder Specifications

K465 alloy powder for AM processes is supplied by various manufacturers to the following nominal specifications:

Parameter Specification
Particle size distribution 15 – 53 microns
Oxygen content 0.05% max
Nitrogen content 0.05% max
Morphology Spheroidal
Apparent density 4.0 – 4.5 g/cc
Tap density 4.5 – 5.0 g/cc
Flow rate 15 – 25 s/50g
  • Powder particle size distribution optimized for AM processes
  • High powder flowability ensures uniform layer spreading
  • Low oxygen content minimizes risk of defects in builds
  • Spherical morphology provides good packing and powder bed density

Additional Requirements:

  • Powder should be handled in an inert atmosphere to prevent contamination
  • Moisture content must be kept below 0.1 wt% for good powder flow
  • Temporary storage life up to 1 year in sealed containers with argon
  • Open containers to be used within 1 week to avoid degradation

Meeting powder specifications in terms of size, shape, chemistry, and handling is critical to achieving high density AM parts with expected mechanical properties.

K465 Alloy Powder Availability

K465 superalloy powder can be sourced from major suppliers like:

Manufacturer Product Name
Praxair TA1
Carpenter Additive CarTech K465
Sandvik Osprey K465-TCP
Erasteel Stellite AM K465

The alloy powder is sold in various sizes ranging from 1 kg containers for R&D purposes up to 1000 kg containers for production volumes. Prices range from $90-150 per kg based on quantity and manufacturer.

Lead times for procurement typically range from 2-8 weeks after order confirmation. Customized particle size distributions and special handling may require a longer lead time.

K465 powder inventory should be monitored closely and reordered well in advance of running out. Shortages can cause costly AM machine downtime. Consider spacing out orders over time to maintain stock.

K465 Alloy Powder Processing

Parameter Ranges for AM Processes:

Process Preheating Temp Layer Thickness Laser Power Scan Speed Hatch Spacing
DMLS 150 – 180°C 20 – 60 μm 195 – 250 W 600 – 1200 mm/s 0.08 – 0.12 mm
EBM 1000 – 1100°C 50 – 200 μm 5 – 25 mA 50 – 200 mm/s 0.1 – 0.2 mm
  • DMLS = Direct metal laser sintering
  • EBM = Electron beam melting
  • A wider range of parameters allows flexibility to optimize for surface finish, build time, or mechanical properties
  • Preheating reduces residual stresses; higher for EBM due to higher temperatures
  • Slower scan speeds improve density but prolong build time
  • Fine hatch spacing reduces porosity but requires more scan passes


  • Removal of parts from build plate using EDM wire cutting
  • Removal of residual powder via glass bead blasting
  • Stress relief heat treatment at 870°C for 1 hour
  • HIP treatment at 1160°C under 100 MPa pressure for 4 hours
  • Age hardening heat treatment at 760°C for 10 hours

Benefits of Post-Processing:

  • HIP closes internal voids and minimizes porosity
  • Heat treatments relieve residual stress and achieve optimal hardness
  • Yields close to 100% dense parts with mechanical properties equivalent to cast and wrought
  • Additional hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and heat treatments can further enhance properties

Parameter selection, support structures, build orientation, post-processing steps are all optimizable based on AM technology used and properties required.

How K465 Compares with Other Superalloy Powders

K465 vs Inconel 718

Alloy K465 Inconel 718
Density Higher Lower
Tensile Strength Similar Similar
Service Temperature 100°C higher Up to 650°C
Cost 2X more expensive More economical
  • K465 chosen for higher temperature capability where cost increase is justified
  • Inconel 718 more economical for lower temperature applications

K465 vs Haynes 282

Alloy K465 Haynes 282
Processability Better More difficult
Thermal conductivity Higher Lower
Service temperature Similar Similar
Cost Similar Similar
  • K465 easier to laser print and post-process without cracking
  • Haynes 282 more prone to solidification cracks during builds

K465 vs CM 247 LC

Alloy K465 CM 247 LC
Density Lower Higher
Strength Similar Similar
Ductility Higher Lower
Cost Lower Higher
  • K465 has better combinaton of strength and ductility
  • Lower cost alloy alternative to CM 247 LC

K465 vs Inconel 625

Alloy K465 Inconel 625
Service Temperature Higher Up to 700°C
Corrosion Resistance Moderate Excellent
Cost Higher Lower
Availability More limited Readily available
  • Inconel 625 chosen where corrosion resistance trumps high temperature capability
  • K465 preferred for jet engine parts seeing extreme temperatures

Understanding where K465 excels or falls short compared to alternatives aids material selection for AM components. The alloy can be tailored to shift the balance between cost, availability, processability, and properties.

K465 Alloy Powder – Frequently Asked Questions

Q: What pre-processing steps are required for K465 powder?

A: K465 powder needs to be dried for 1-4 hours at 100-150°C to remove moisture absorbed during shipping and storage. Sieving between 20-63 microns will eliminate large particles that can cause recoater issues.

Q: Does K465 require hot isostatic pressing (HIP) post-processing?

A: HIP is recommended but not mandatory for K465. It helps close internal voids and achieve maximum density and mechanical properties. HIP at 1160°C under 100 MPa for 4 hours is typical.

Q: What heat treatments can be used to tailor K465 properties?

A: Solution treatment at 1150°C plus single or double aging between 700-850°C is used to optimize strength and ductility. Rapid cooling after solution treatment enhances properties.

Q: Is K465 superalloy weldable for repair purposes?

A: Yes, K465 can be welded using ER NiCrMo-10 filler metal. Solution treatment at 1175°C and aging at 845°C is required after welding to restore properties.

Q: What manufacturing defects can occur with K465 builds?

A: Lack of fusion porosity, cracking between layers, delamination, and distortion are potential defects requiring parameter optimization. Lower preheat and faster scan speeds increase risk.

Q: What finishing methods can be used on additively manufactured K465 parts?

A: Machining, shot peening, chemical etching, and electropolishing allow surface roughness improvement. This facilitates NDE inspection and improves fatigue life.

Q: Does K465 alloy powder require special storage precautions?

A: K465 powder rapidly absorbs moisture, so storage in sealed argon purged containers is required. Use within 1 week of opening container to prevent degradation.

Q: What safety precautions are needed when handling K465 powder?

A: K465 powder is not flammable but may cause skin/eye irritation. Use protective gloves, clothing, face shields. Avoid inhalation and install proper ventilation.


K465 nickel superalloy powder has found increased adoption in additive manufacturing, enabling lightweight, high strength components with complex geometries. Its balanced composition provides a potent combination of mechanical properties, oxidation resistance, thermal stability, and weldability. These attributes make K465 suitable for aerospace propulsion systems, land-based power generation equipment, and chemical processing hardware enduring sustained high temperature service.

Understanding the niche where K465 outperforms alternatives such as Inconel 718 or Haynes 282 allows proper material selection. Careful control of AM process parameters, powder quality, heat treatments, and hot isostatic pressing is necessary to obtain optimal microstructure and performance. As additive manufacturing capabilities continue evolving, engineered materials like K465 will open new possibilities for designing next generation high temperature components with extended service life.


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