金属钨粉

目录

概述 tungsten metal powder

Tungsten metal powder refers to fine particulate material composed primarily of elemental tungsten for use in various industrial applications. Key properties include extremely high density, strength, hardness, and high temperature durability.

Common applications of tungsten powder include:

  • Tungsten carbide composites
  • 钨重合金
  • 热喷涂涂层
  • 快速成型制造
  • 电气触点
  • 辐射屏蔽

Tungsten is considered a critical raw material for its unique performance combined with precarious supply dynamics. Continue reading to learn more about specifications, processing, pricing and uses of tungsten powder.

tungsten metal powder

Material Types of tungsten metal powder

Tungsten metal powder comes in several primary compositions:

类型Typical Grades组成
纯钨99.9%, 99.99% purityElemental tungsten with impurity limits
Oxide-Dispersed Tungsten添加 Y2O3Tungsten with 0.5-1% yttrium oxide nanoparticles
Doped TungstenLanthanum or other dopantsTungsten with added grain growth inhibitors < 1% level

表 1: Common material categories for tungsten metal powders depending on application needs

Special dopants or oxide additives help tailor powder properties during consolidation into end-user components and parts requiring stability at high temperatures.

主要特性

物业典型值重要意义
密度19.3 克/立方厘米Provides excellent mass and radiation blocking
熔点3410°CRetains strength at extreme temperatures where most metals fail
极限拉伸强度550-620 兆帕Relatively brittle material with moderate tensile ductility
硬度HV 300-350Harder than tool steel
杨氏模量350-410 GPaStiff, resistant to deflection
导热性165 W/mKUseful in thermal management parts operating at high temps

表 2: Overview of mechanical and physical properties exhibited by tungsten metal powder and consolidated alloys

The unrivaled temperature resistance combined with density drives adoption in demanding energy, aerospace, defense and electronics applications.

Particle Characteristics of tungsten metal powder

Typical tungsten powder morphology:

参数详细信息
纯净99.9% to 99.999% available
粒子形状不规则、有棱有角
尺寸分布1 to 100 micron typical
氧气含量<100 ppm
Surface oxide level<50 nm thicknes

表 3: Powder quality metrics for tungsten metal powders used in various consolidation processes

Care must be taken to prevent oxidation during powder handling. Chemistries tailored to final part density and grain structure targets.

Production Process

  • Primary methods to produce tungsten metal powder:
    • Hydrogen Reduction (Hydrogen is used to convert oxide feedstocks to powder)
    • Thermite Process Reduction (Exothermic oxide-metal reactions produce powder)
  • Secondary mechanical processes:
    • Jet Milling (Feedstock crushed into fine particles via collisions)
    • Rotating Electrode Process (Electrode spinning and melt disintegration)
  • Typical powder-part consolidation techniques:
    • 热等静压
    • 烧结
    • Additive Manufacturing (SLM, EBM)
  • Environment and handling considerations:
    • Nominally inert storage <40°C under argon
    • Glove box handling to prevent oxidation

应用 tungsten metal powder

Major uses of tungsten metal powder across industries:

Segment应用使用原因
工业Tungsten carbide materialsExtreme hardness and toughness for machining and mining tools
国防Kinetic energy penetratorsSuperior density properties
航空航天火箭发动机喷嘴Maintains material strength in extreme environments
能源Heat shields, plasma torch componentsHigh temperature performance where alternatives fail
电子产品电气触点Arcing resistance combined with thermal/conductivity properties

表 4: Overview of key application areas for tungsten metal derived components in various industries

Tungsten sees ubiquitous use in products where hardness, density, toughness and strength are essential under extreme temperatures or loading.

成本分析

Typical tungsten powder pricing:

参数详细信息
Powder Price$50 to $350 per kg
Consolidated Part Price每公斤 $100+
Processing Yield60-70%
Primary SuppliersChina, Austria, Portugal, USA, Russia other countries
前导时间6-12 weeks frequently

表 5: Buying factors including raw material costs for tungsten products

Consumers report extreme pricing volatility making budgetary planning difficult in the tungsten market. Established partnerships and supply agreements mitigate risks.

Pros and Cons

优势

  • Extremely high density helps radiation shielding
  • Maintains strength to over 3000°C where most metals melt
  • Relatively neutral material avoids contamination
  • Powder form supports complex geometries with some AM processes
  • Hardness similar to tool steel once parts consolidated

缺点

  • Brittle characteristics mean low tensile ductility
  • Difficult to fully densify parts without pinholes and voids
  • Requires specialized cold-wall vacuum equipment for melting
  • Risk of supply chain disruptions impacting availability
  • Oxidation risk necessitates controlled handling
  • Very expensive compared to steel alternatives
tungsten metal powder

常见问题

Q: What particle size range is typical for tungsten powders used in various applications?

A: Most common size distributions fall between 1-100 microns. Finer particles pack better aiding full densification but have handling issues. Particle engineering depends on consolidation method with AM range generally 10-45 microns and carbide composites using up to sub-micron powders.

Q: What alloying elements can be incorporated into tungsten metal powder?

A: Typical alloyants like nickel, iron and copper severely degrade high temperature performance so are rarely added. Rhenium improves ductility slightly. Oxide particles help pin grain size. Rare earth dopants also stabilize properties. Alloying options are limited to small additives to maintain purity.

Q: What recommended storage and handling precautions apply for tungsten powders?

A: Like other air sensitive materials, tungsten metal powder should be kept below 40°C under inert argon gas to prevent oxidation from moisture or oxygen. Glove box protocols are necessary including leak checks. Never allow contact with organics during handling to prevent contamination or reactions.

Q: Does tungsten powder require hazardous material classification and special shipping?

A: Elemental tungsten metal powder is benign and not reactive. It qualifies for normal freight shipping in approved packaging similar to other industrial raw materials. No special DG classification needed unlike carbide grades with controlled cobalt content considered hazardous mixtures.

Q: What downstream parts production processes are compatible with tungsten powder feedstocks?

A: Hot isostatic pressing and sintering generate standard consolidated components like weights or heat shields. Additive manufacturing via powder bed fusion creates complex geometries unattainable otherwise. Powders also serve thermal spray coating feedstocks requiring post-consolidation.

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