D2 Powder

D2 powder is a cold work tool steel powder offering an excellent combination of high hardness, wear resistance, and toughness. It is a versatile chromium-molybdenum-vanadium alloy widely used for pressing into cutting tools, dies, precision parts, and wear components across industrial sectors.


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Table of Contents

Overview of D2 Powder

D2 powder is a cold work tool steel powder offering an excellent combination of high hardness, wear resistance, and toughness. It is a versatile chromium-molybdenum-vanadium alloy widely used for pressing into cutting tools, dies, precision parts, and wear components across industrial sectors.

Key properties and advantages of D2 powder include:

D2 Powder Properties and Characteristics

Properties Details
Composition Fe-1.5Cr-0.3C-0.4V-1Mo alloy
Density 7.7 g/cc
Particle shape Spherical or irregular
Size range 10-150 microns
Apparent density Up to 60% of true density
Flowability Good
Hardness 60-62 HRC when heat treated
Toughness Very good

D2’s exceptional combination of hardness, strength, and impact resistance make it the top choice for cold work tooling needing extended service life.

D2 Powder Composition

Typical composition of D2 tool steel powder:

D2 Powder Composition

Element Weight %
Iron (Fe) Balance
Chromium (Cr) 11-13%
Carbon (C) 1.4-1.6%
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.75-1.2%
Vanadium (V) 0.7-1.2%
Manganese (Mn) 0.3-0.6%
Silicon (Si) 0.15-0.4%
  • Iron provides the ferritic matrix
  • Chromium contributes to hardness and wear resistance
  • Carbon enables high hardness in heat treated condition
  • Molybdenum and vanadium form carbides enhancing wear resistance
  • Manganese and silicon improve solid solution strengthening

The composition is designed to achieve an optimal combination of hardness, toughness and grindability required in tooling applications.

D2  Powder


D2 Powder Physical Properties

D2 Powder Physical Properties

Property Value
Density 7.7 g/cc
Melting point 1460-1500°C
Thermal conductivity 21 W/mK
Electrical resistivity 0.7 μΩ-m
Curie temperature 1010°C
Maximum service temperature 180-200°C
  • High density provides component miniaturization capabilities
  • Retains high hardness and strength at elevated temperatures
  • Becomes paramagnetic above Curie point
  • Relatively low service temperature due to tempering effect

The properties allow D2 to be used in cold work tooling applications at high hardness levels.

D2 Powder Mechanical Properties

D2 Powder Mechanical Properties

Property Value
Hardness 60-62 HRC
Transverse rupture strength 1900-2100 MPa
Tensile strength 2050-2200 MPa
Yield strength 1700-1900 MPa
Elongation 8-11%
Impact toughness 12-15 J/cm2
  • Exceptional hardness when heat treated
  • Very high strength with reasonable ductility
  • Excellent impact toughness for a tool steel
  • High fatigue strength for extended tool life
  • Strength and ductility values depend on heat treatment

The properties make D2 suitable for the most demanding cold work tooling and die applications requiring extreme wear resistance.

D2 Powder Applications

Typical applications of D2 tool steel powder include:

D2 Powder Applications

Industry Example Uses
Manufacturing Press tooling, punch and dies
Automotive Blank, pierce, trim, and forming dies
Aerospace Forming dies, fixtures
Consumer goods Razors, knives, scissors
Industrial Drawing dies, thread rolling dies

Some specific product uses:

  • Cold heading dies for fastener manufacturing
  • Coining dies for minting precise parts
  • Thread rolling dies for bolt production
  • Draw, punch, blanking dies across sectors
  • Surgical tools and cutlery
  • Pelletizing tooling

D2 is the premier powder metal tool steel preferred for the longest lasting cold work tooling, metal forming dies, and precision components across all industries.

D2 Powder Specifications

Key specifications for D2 tool steel powder:

D2 Powder Standards

Standard Description
ASTM A681 Standard for tool steels alloys
DIN 1.2379 Equivalent to AISI D2
JIS G 4404 Cold work tool steels
ISO 4957 Tool steels
GOST 5950 Tool steel grades

These define:

  • Chemical composition limits of D2 steel
  • Required mechanical properties in heat treated condition
  • Permissible impurities
  • Approved production methods like gas atomization
  • Compliance testing protocols
  • Packaging, identification requirements

D2 powder made to these specifications ensures suitability for tooling applications requiring maximum wear resistance, impact toughness and dimensional stability.

D2 Powder Particle Sizes

D2 Powder Particle Size Distribution

Particle Size Characteristics
10-22 microns Ultrafine grade provides highest density
22-53 microns Most commonly used size range
53-105 microns Coarser size provides good flowability
  • Finer particles allow greater densification during sintering
  • Coarser particles improve powder flow into die cavities
  • Size is selected based on final part properties needed
  • Both gas and water atomized particles used

Controlling size distribution optimizes pressing behavior, sintered density, and final component performance.

D2 Powder Apparent Density

D2 Powder Apparent Density

Apparent Density Details
Up to 60% of true density For spherical powder morphology
4.5-5.5 g/cc typical Higher density improves flow and compressibility
  • Spherical powder shape provides high apparent density
  • Irregular powder has lower density around 50%
  • Higher apparent density improves press fill efficiency
  • Enables easier compaction into complex tool geometries

Higher apparent density leads to better manufacturing productivity and component quality.

D2 Powder Production Method

D2 Powder Production

Method Details
Gas atomization High pressure inert gas breaks up molten alloy stream into fine droplets
Vacuum induction melting High purity input materials melted under vacuum
Multiple remelting Enhances chemical homogeneity
Sieving Classifies powder into different particle size fractions
  • Gas atomization provides spherical powder shape
  • Vacuum melting eliminates gaseous impurities
  • Multiple remelting improves uniformity
  • Post-processing allows particle size customization

Fully automated processes combined with strict quality control ensures reliable and consistent properties of D2 powder critical for tooling performance.

D2 Powder Pricing

D2 Powder Pricing

Factor Impact on Price
Purity level Higher purity increases cost
Particle size Ultrafine powder more expensive
Order quantity Price decreases with larger volume
Powder properties Higher density powder costs more
Additional services Customization adds cost

Indicative Pricing

  • D2 spherical powder: $15-25 per kg
  • D2 irregular powder: $10-20 per kg
  • Large volume pricing can be 40% lower

Pricing depends on purity, particle size and shape, order quantity, density, and any additional customization.

D2 Powder Suppliers

D2 Powder Suppliers

Company Location
Höganäs Sweden
Erasteel USA, Europe
Carpenter Powder Products USA
Sandvik Osprey UK
Jingdong New Material China
CNPC Powders China

Key supplier selection factors:

  • Powder grades offered
  • Production capacity
  • Particle size distribution
  • Powder characterization and testing
  • Pricing and minimum order quantity
  • Packaging and lead times
  • Customer technical support

D2 Powder Handling and Storage

D2 Powder Handling

Recommendation Reason
Ensure adequate ventilation Prevent exposure to fine metal particles
Wear protective gear Avoid accidental ingestion
Ground all equipment Prevent static sparks
Avoid ignition sources Flammable dust risk
Use non-sparking tools Prevent ignition during handling
Follow safe protocols Reduce fire, explosion, and health risks

Storage Recommendations

  • Store sealed containers in a cool, dry area
  • Limit exposure to moisture, acids, chlorides
  • Maintain temperatures below 27°C

Proper precautions during handling and storage help preserve purity and prevent health or fire hazards.

D2 Powder Inspection and Testing

D2 Powder Testing

Test Details
Chemical analysis Verifies composition using optical or ICP spectroscopy
Particle size distribution Determines sizes using laser diffraction or sieving
Apparent density Measured using Hall flowmeter as per ASTM B212
Powder morphology SEM imaging to determine particle shape
Flow rate analysis Gravity flow rate through specified funnel
Tap density test Density measured after mechanically tapping powder sample

Testing ensures the powder meets the required chemical composition, physical characteristics, particle size distribution, morphology, density, and flow rate specifications.

D2 Powder Pros and Cons

Advantages of D2 Powder

  • Exceptional hardness when heat treated
  • Excellent wear and abrasion resistance
  • Very high strength combined with good impact toughness
  • Dimensional stability in cold work service
  • Good grindability compared to other tool steels
  • Relatively cost-effective

Limitations of D2 Powder

  • Moderate corrosion resistance without surface treatment
  • Limited high temperature strength and creep resistance
  • Requires careful heat treatment by experienced providers
  • Not weldable using conventional welding methods
  • Large sections can experience embrittlement
  • Brittle fracture mode limits cold formability

Comparison With S7 Tool Steel Powder

D2 vs S7 Tool Steel Powder

Parameter D2 S7
Hardness 60-62 HRC 63-65 HRC
Toughness Very good Good
Wear resistance Excellent Outstanding
Corrosion resistance Moderate Low
Cold strength Excellent Very good
Cost Low High
  • D2 has slightly lower hardness but much better toughness
  • S7 provides the maximum wear resistance
  • D2 has better corrosion resistance uncoated
  • S7 has higher hot hardness and hot strength
  • D2 is more cost effective

D2 Powder FAQs

Q: What are the main applications of D2 tool steel powder?

A: Main applications include cold pressing tooling, blanking and punching dies, coin minting dies, thread rolling dies, surgical tools, knives, industrial knives, and precision ground shafts and pins.

Q: What heat treatment is used for D2 tool steel powder?

A: D2 is typically heat treated by austenitizing at 1010-1040°C, quenching in oil or air, and tempering at 150-350°C to achieve a hardness of 60-62 HRC.

Q: How does vanadium improve the properties of D2 steel?

A: Vanadium forms fine carbides with iron and chromium that impart significant wear resistance and abrasion resistance while also enhancing impact toughness.

Q: What precautions should be taken when working with D2 powder?

A: Recommended precautions include ventilation, inert atmosphere, avoiding ignition sources, grounding equipment, using non-sparking tools, protective gear, and safe storage away from moisture or contamination.

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