Titanium powder is a versatile metallic material valued for its unique combination of high strength, low density, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. As a powder, titanium facilitates advanced manufacturing techniques like metal injection molding (MIM), additive manufacturing (AM), hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and powder metallurgy (PM) pressing and sintering to create complex titanium components.

Key applications for titanium powder include aerospace components, medical implants, automotive parts, sporting equipment, chemical processing, and consumer products. This guide provides a comprehensive overview of titanium powder, including production methods, alloy compositions, characteristics, properties, specifications, applications, and global suppliers. It aims to assist engineers, product designers, and technical program managers in selecting and using 钛粉.


Production of Titanium Powder

Titanium powder is produced using the following primary methods:


  • 气体雾化 – High pressure inert gas disintegrates molten titanium into spherical powder
  • 等离子体雾化 – Titanium electrode arcs create ultrafine spherical powder
  • Hydriding/Dehydriding – Titanium hydride powder (TiO2) is dehydrided into fine powders
  • 机械铣削 – Ball milling breaks down titanium chips into irregular particles
  • 血浆球体化 – Irregular powder melted in plasma to produce spherical shapes

Gas atomization and mechanical milling are most common, creating spherical and angular powder shapes respectively. Additional screening, conditioning, and blending create application-specific particle size distributions.

Compositions of Titanium Powder

While commercially pure 钛粉 are available, most powders for industrial uses contain small amounts of alloying elements:

Common Titanium Powder Compositions

CP Titanium99.5%+ Ti卓越的耐腐蚀性
钛-6Al-4V6% Al, 4% VHigh strength, heat treatable
钛-6Al-7Nb6% Al, 7% NbHigh strength, biocompatible
Ti-5555% Al, 5% Mo, 5% VHeat treatable, machinable
Ti-102310% V, 2% Fe, 3% AlHigh strength, good ductility

Aluminum, vanadium, and niobium are common additions to enhance strength and workability. Trace boron, carbon, iron, and oxygen also appear.

Alloying tailors microstructure, hardness, machinability, and other properties while retaining excellent corrosion resistance.

Characteristics of Titanium Powders

Key characteristics of titanium powder include:

Titanium Powder Characteristics

颗粒大小10 - 150 微米Sintering behavior, surface finish
粒子形状Spherical, angular, dendriticPowder flow and packing density
表观密度1.5 – 4.0 g/ccPressing and handling behavior
水龙头密度2.5 – 4.5 g/ccIndicator of compressibility
霍尔流量25 - 35 秒/50 克粉末流动性
点火损失0.1 – 0.5 wt%Oxygen and moisture content
PyrophoricityFlammability and handling precautions

Particle size distribution and powder shape significantly impact powder flow, compaction, sintering response, and density of pressed and sintered parts. Apparent density indicates powder compressibility.

的特性 Titanium Powders

Key titanium powder properties include:

Titanium Powder Properties

物业Pure Ti钛-6Al-4V钛-6Al-7Nb
密度4.5 克/立方厘米4.43 克/立方厘米4.52 g/cc
拉伸强度240 MPa930 MPa900 MPa
屈服强度170 MPa860 MPa825 MPa
弹性模量102 GPa114 GPa105 GPa
硬度80 HB334 HB321 HB
Heat Capacity522 J/kg·K526 J/kg·K527 J/kg·K
导热性7.2 W/m·K7.2 W/m·K6.7 W/m·K

Alloying with aluminum, vanadium, and niobium enhances strength and hardness significantly. Specific properties depend heavily on final microstructure.


Key applications for titanium powder include:

Titanium Powder Applications

行业用途Key Reasons
航空航天Structural components, turbine blades, fasteners高强度重量比
医疗Orthopedic implants, dental implants, surgical toolsBiocompatibility, corrosion resistance
汽车连杆、阀门、弹簧、紧固件Light weighting, performance
化学Tanks, pipes, valves, pumps耐腐蚀性
体育用品Golf clubs, bicycles, helmetsStrength, tailored mechanical properties
石油化工井下工具、井口部件Strength, corrosion resistance

Titanium’s unique properties make it attractive for reducing weight in aerospace components while maintaining mechanical integrity in extreme environments.

Excellent biocompatibility and corrosion resistance drive usage in orthopedic and dental implants. The ability to tailor titanium’s properties facilitates sporting goods with specialized performance characteristics.

Specifications for Titanium Powders

Titanium powder compositions and quality are defined by various standard specifications:

Titanium Powder Standards

ASTM B348Grade 1-4 unalloyed Ti powder-635 mesh99.5%, 99.9%, 99.95% TiO, C, N, H limits
ASTM B801Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder-635 meshTi, Al, V composition rangesInterstitial limits
ISO 23301Additive manufacturing Ti powder10-45 微米99.5%+ TiO, N, C, H, Fe limits
AMS 4992Aerospace grade Ti-6Al-4V powder-150 meshTi, Al, V composition rangesInterstitial limits

These define acceptable levels of alloying additions, impurities like oxygen/nitrogen/carbon, particle size distributions, and other test methods relevant for different applications.

全球供应商 Titanium Powders

Many major corporations produce titanium powders along with smaller regional manufacturers:


ATI Metals气体雾化Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-1023, pure TiWide alloy range, large volumes
普莱克斯气体雾化Ti-6Al-4V, CP TiSmall lots, rapid delivery
木匠添加剂Gas atomization, hydride-dehydrideTi-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb, pure TiCustom alloys, small lots
AP&C等离子雾化CP Ti, Ti alloysUltrafine 10-45 micron powder
泰克纳血浆球体化Ti-6Al-4V, CP TiConvert chips into spherical powder
Baoji Hanz TitaniumHydridingCP Ti, Ti-6Al-4VLow costChinese producer

Many supply both standard and custom alloy compositions. Some provide toll processing of scrap and chips into powder.

Selecting Titanium Powder

Key considerations for selecting titanium powder include:

  • 合金成分 – Balances desired properties like strength, ductility, hardness
  • 纯度 – Affects mechanical properties and microstructure
  • 颗粒大小和形状 – Influences powder flow, density, surface finish
  • 表观密度和敲击密度 – Indicates compressibility and sintering response
  • Chemical compatibility – For service conditions like acids or salt water
  • 取样程序 – Representative testing of powder lots
  • 质量认证 – ISO 9001, AS9100, etc.
  • 技术专长 from powder producer

Samples builds and prototypes help qualify new alloys and powders for a given application. Work closely with reputable suppliers to obtain well-characterized titanium powder for optimal results.



What is the benefit of plasma atomized titanium powder?

Plasma atomization produces very spherical, flowing particles typically 10-45 microns in size. This allows excellent sintered density and surface finish.

What causes titanium powder to be pyrophoric?

Pyrophoric titanium powders ignite spontaneously in air. This is caused by extremely small particle sizes below 10 microns which greatly increase surface area and reactivity. Use inert gas handling for pyrophoric powders.

How does particle shape influence titanium powder properties?

Spherical powder flows well and provides higher and more uniform density and mechanical properties. Irregular powder offers better green strength and compressibility but less predictable shrinkage.

What post-processing can improve titanium powder reuse?

Screening, milling, and thermal treatments allow reuse of off-spec powders. Plasma spheroidization converts chips and coarser particles into spherical powder feedstock.

What standards apply to additive manufacturing of titanium parts?

ASTM F3001-14 covers characterization and quality control of Ti alloy powder for AM. ASTM F2924-14 gives standard test methods for evaluating mechanical properties of AM titanium.

Can you 3D print a titanium and steel composite structure?

Yes, some metal 3D printing processes transition between titanium and stainless steel alloys within one part by precise material switching to build bimetallic components.


Titanium powder provides engineers great flexibility to build high performance components thanks to the metal’s unique properties. Careful selection of powder characteristics and close collaboration with experienced suppliers enables optimal results across many critical applications. Ongoing advances continue to expand the capabilities, quality, and cost-effectiveness of titanium powder metallurgy processes.

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