电子束熔融 3d 打印



electron beam melting 3d printing is an additive manufacturing technology that uses an electron beam as energy source to selectively melt and fuse metallic powder particles layer-by-layer to fabricate complex 3D parts.

Compared to other metal 3D printing methods, EBM offers distinct advantages like excellent mechanical properties, high build rates, vacuum processing benefits, and suitability for reactive materials. However, the high equipment cost and limited material options have confined EBM usage to demanding applications in aerospace, medical, and automotive sectors.

This comprehensive guide covers EBM technology, process, materials, applications, system manufacturers, costs, advantages/limitations, and other FAQs to help manufacturers evaluate if EBM is the right metal AM solution for their needs.

如何 Electron Beam Melting 3D Printing 作品

EBM printing involves the following key steps:

3D Model Preparation

  • CAD model optimized for EBM – wall thicknesses, supports, orientation etc.

File Conversion to .STL

  • CAD geometry converted to triangular facets .STL file

Machine Setup

  • Build parameters input – speed, power, focus offset etc.
  • Material loaded, parameters adjusted based on powder properties

Powder Raking

  • Powder uniformly raked over build platform in controlled layers


  • Focused electron beam selectively melts powder to build each layer
  • Vacuum environment prevents oxidation

Lowering of Platform

  • After a layer is melted, platform indexed down by layer thickness
  • Fresh layer of powder spread over previous layer

Removal from Machine

  • Excess powder removed from built parts
  • Support structures detached
  • Post-processing done if needed

The layer-by-layer building process enables intricate, optimized geometries with excellent properties.

电子束熔融 3d 打印

Materials for EBM 3D Printing

EBM is compatible with a range of metal alloys:

钛合金High strength, low weight ratio航空航天、医疗植入物
镍超合金Heat and corrosion resistance涡轮叶片、火箭喷嘴
钴铬合金生物相容性、高硬度Dental implants, medical devices
工具钢卓越的耐磨性Cutting tools, molds, dies
不锈钢Corrosion resistance, high ductilityPumps, valves, vessels

Both standard and custom alloys optimized for EBM can be printed. Parameter tuning is required for new materials to achieve desired properties.

EBM 设备供应商

主要的 EBM 设备制造商包括

供应商Key Machine Models建筑围护结构
Arcam EBM(通用电气添加剂)Arcam A2X, Q10plus, Spectra H, Spectra L254 x 254 x 380 mm
Velo3DSapphire250 x 250 x 300 毫米
RaychamEBAM 300300 x 300 x 300 mm
SciakyEBAM 1101100 x 1100 x 900 mm
JEOLJEM-ARM300F300 x 300 x 300 mm

Arcam EBM pioneered commercial EBM systems. Other providers have entered more recently, expanding material and size capabilities.


Typical EBM system specifications:

光束功率Up to 12 kW
加速电压60 kV
光束电流Up to 40 mA
光束尺寸200 μm minimum
扫描速度Up to 8000 m/s
焦点偏移Automatic, settable 0-5 mm
真空5 x 10-4 mbar
层厚度50-200 μm
Maximum build size1100 x 1100 x 900 mm
Repeatability± 0.2% of build height

Higher power and finer focus provides sharper melt pools and better feature resolution. Larger build envelopes facilitate batch production.

EBM Design Principles

Key EBM part design principles:

  • Minimize unsupported surfaces to prevent distortion
  • Use self-supporting angles above 45° to avoid supports
  • Design internal channels for unmelted powder removal
  • Account for ~20% shrinkage compared to final part dimensions
  • Include texturing to improve powder flow into intricate areas
  • Position parts for uniform heating and efficient packing
  • Design structures to minimize trapped powder
  • Keep overhangs above 30° to prevent dripping
  • Use conformal lattice supports when needed

EBM design freedom allows consolidating assemblies into optimized, lightweight monolithic parts.

Applications of EBM

EBM is ideal for:

Aerospace and automotive:

  • Turbine blades, fuel injectors, structural frames, intricate enclosures


  • Orthopedic implants, prosthetics, surgical tools requiring biocompatibility


  • Lightweight robotics components, fluid handling parts subjected to corrosion


  • Durable, customized components like cooling channels and mounts


  • Novel alloys, metal matrix composites, and lattice structures

EBM’s combination of design freedom, engineering properties and manufacturing economics make it the process of choice for critical applications.


EBM system and part production cost depend on:

Machine Purchase

  • ~$800,000 for medium-sized production machines
  • Multi-million investment for large systems

Material Cost

  • Powder can range from $100-500/kg
  • Some alloys like Ti64 command premium pricing

Operation Cost

  • Average machine cost ~$50-150/hour
  • Labor for pre/post processing


  • Larger parts require more material and build time
  • Small parts can be nested for efficiency


  • Heat treatment, CNC, finishing increase costs

Total Cost Per Part

  • Small parts ~ $20-$50 per cubic inch
  • Large parts ~$5-$15 per cubic inch

Higher utilization via batch production and nesting lowers cost per part.

Process Control and Optimization

Critical process parameters to control:

  • 电源 – Influences melt pool size, penetration, build rate
  • 速度 – Impacts resolution, surface finish, deposit shapes
  • 焦点偏移 – Controls beam shape, penetration, defects
  • 层厚度 – Determines Z-axis resolution, build time
  • 舱口间距 – Adjust to achieve required density, prevent balling
  • 扫描策略 – Unidirectional, island, contour patterns affectresidual stresses and distortion
  • Preheat – Improves powder sintering, reduces cracking and warpage

Design of Experiments combined with melt pool studies and microstructural characterization inform parameter selection to achieve desired properties.


Typical EBM post-processing steps:

  • Removal – Depowdering to detach parts from build plate
  • 支持移除 – Cutting off support structures if needed
  • 缓解压力 – Heat treatment to prevent cracking
  • 表面处理 – Machining, grinding, polishing to improve finish
  • 热等静压 – Applies heat and pressure to close residual pores and improve density
  • 检查 – Confirming dimensions, material composition, defects

Minimizing supports and post-processing is a key consideration during EBM part design.

Qualification and Certification

EBM parts destined for regulated industries require:

  • Testing to applicable standards like ASTM F2924, ASTM F3001 etc.
  • Extensive metrological inspection for critical dimensions and surface quality
  • Material composition analysis through chemical analysis, microstructure characterization
  • Mechanical property evaluation like tensile, fatigue, fracture toughness testing
  • Non-destructive inspection using X-ray tomography, liquid penetrant testing etc.
  • Documentation of full traceability for powder, build parameters, post-processing etc.
  • Formal part qualification and certification by relevant bodies

Following established protocols and standards ensures parts meet the stringent quality demands.

EBM Compared to Other Metal AM

EBM Advantages

  • Excellent material properties from faster cooling
  • High productivity and low cost per part
  • Minimal support structures needed
  • Unaffected by residual stresses and distortion
  • Vacuum environment prevents oxidation
  • Lower thermal gradients vs laser processes


  • Conductive materials only, limited material options currently
  • More geometrical constraints than laser AM
  • Rough surface finish often requires post machining
  • Equipment cost is higher than laser systems

Implementing EBM Successfully

Keys to EBM adoption:

  • Evaluate part application requirements versus EBM capabilities
  • Assess expected machine utilization to determine ROI
  • Account for post-processing time/cost during planning
  • Partner with experienced service bureaus to minimize learning curve
  • Leverage EBM design expertise to redesign parts for optimal manufacturability
  • Graduate from prototyping to series production to maximize productivity
  • Implement robust quality management and certification protocols

A holistic implementation approach enables companies to leverage EBM benefits and become production leaders.

电子束熔融 3d 打印


What materials are used in EBM?

Titanium alloys, nickel superalloys, tool steels, cobalt-chrome, and stainless steels are common. Both standard and custom alloys optimized for EBM can be printed.

How does the cost of EBM compare to other metal AM processes?

EBM machines and powder feedstock are more expensive than laser-based AM systems. But higher build rates and productivity can offset this for production applications.

What are some key differences between EBM and selective laser melting?

Faster build rates, elevated temperature operation, and excellent material properties differentiate EBM, while limitations in surface finish and geometric freedom are the main tradeoffs.

What types of post-processing are typically required for EBM parts?

Support removal, stress relieving heat treatment, hot isostatic pressing, and surface finishing like CNC machining are common. Minimizing supports during design reduces post-processing.

What size parts can be built using EBM technology?

Small benchtop systems have build volumes under 100 mm cubed while large production systems can accommodate parts over a meter in size. Maximum size is expanding with newer large-format machines.


EBM’s unique rapid melting capabilities enable manufacturing intricate metal components with unmatched properties and productivity. While equipment costs and material options have restricted adoption so far, continued advances are opening up new applications across aerospace, medical, defense, automotive, and energy sectors. EBM’s future is bright as part quality and reliability continue to improve while metal powders become more available and affordable. Informed manufacturers who leverage EBM’s advantages while accounting for its limitations are poised to disrupt incumbents and become new leaders.

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