Best Ti-6Al-4V powder (TC4 Powder)for additive manufacturing

TC4 powder, also known as Ti-6Al-4V, is a titanium alloy powder composed of 90% titanium (Ti), 6% aluminum (Al), and 4% vanadium (V). It is widely recognized for its exceptional strength, low density, and excellent corrosion resistance. TC4 powder is extensively utilized across industries due to its unique combination of properties, making it a highly sought-after material for various applications.


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Table of Contents

Overview of TC4 Powder

TC4 belongs to the two-phase α+β titanium alloy system. The aluminum stabilizes the alpha phase while vanadium is a beta stabilizer. This results in a good balance of strength, ductility and high temperature properties.

Key characteristics of TC4 powder include:

  • High strength-to-weight ratio
  • Excellent fatigue strength and fracture toughness
  • Good creep resistance at elevated temperatures
  • Outstanding corrosion resistance
  • Available in range of particle size distributions

TC4 powder has emerged as an excellent choice for reducing weight and improving performance in aerospace, automotive, medical and other demanding applications.

Composition of TC4 Powder

TC4 powder has the following nominal composition:

Element Weight %
Titanium (Ti) Balance
Aluminum (Al) 5.5-6.75%
Vanadium (V) 3.5-4.5%
Iron (Fe) 0-0.40%
Oxygen (O) 0-0.20%
Carbon (C) 0-0.08%
Nitrogen (N) 0-0.05%


The amount of aluminum and vanadium can be optimized to achieve the desired mechanical properties. Impurity levels of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon are minimized.

Properties of TC4 Powder

Key properties of TC4 powder include:

Property Value
Density 4.41-4.43 g/cm3
Melting Point 1600-1660°C
Thermal Conductivity 6.7 W/mK
Electrical Resistivity 1.7 μΩ.cm
Young’s Modulus 110 GPa
Poisson’s Ratio 0.32-0.34
Tensile Strength 900-1200 MPa
Yield Strength 860-900 MPa
Elongation 8-15%
Fatigue Strength 400-500 MPa


The properties like high strength-to-weight ratio, fatigue resistance, creep and corrosion resistance make TC4 suitable for critical applications across industries.

Production Method for TC4 Powder

TC4 powder can be produced via methods like:

  • Gas Atomization – High pressure inert gas jet used to atomize molten TC4 alloy resulting in spherical powder particles.
  • Plasma Rotating Electrode Process – Centrifugal disintegration of rapidly rotating molten metal stream produces spherical powder.
  • Hydride-Dehydride Process – Titanium hydride is decomposed to yield fine titanium powder which is then blended with other elemental powders.

Gas atomization provides excellent control over powder characteristics like particle size distribution, morphology and flowability.

Applications of TC4 Powder

TC4 powder is commonly used in:

  • Additive Manufacturing – Selective laser melting to produce lightweight structural parts for aerospace and automotive.
  • Metal Injection Molding – To manufacture small, complex net-shape components like fasteners, links, surgical instruments.
  • Thermal Spray Coatings – Applied via plasma or HVOF spraying to provide wear/corrosion resistance in marine, oil and gas, biomedical applications.
  • Powder Metallurgy – Pressing and sintering to create high-strength parts like compressor and turbine blades.

Specifications of TC4 Powder

TC4 powder is available under various size ranges, shapes and purity levels:

  • Particle Size: From 15-45 μm for AM methods, up to 100 μm for thermal spray processes.
  • Morphology: Near-spherical powder shape provides optimal flow and packing density.
  • Purity: From commercial purity to high purity levels based on impurity limits and process requirements.
  • Oxygen Content: Levels maintained below 2000 ppm for most applications.
  • Flow Rate: Powder customized for excellent flow rates above 25 s/50 g.

Global Suppliers of TC4 Powder

Some of the major global suppliers of TC4 powder include:

  • AP&C (Canada)
  • TLS Technik (Germany)
  • Tekna (Canada)
  • Sandvik Osprey (UK)
  • Advanced Powders (USA)
  • CNPC Powder Group (China)

These companies produce various grades of TC4 powder tailored for additive manufacturing, thermal spray, powder metallurgy and other applications.

Pricing of TC4 Powder

TC4 powder is priced higher than steels and nickel alloys:

  • Quantity – $100-150 per kg for bulk orders above 500 kg. Smaller quantities are priced significantly higher.
  • Quality – High purity, spherical powder manufactured under tightly controlled conditions using advanced processes demands premium pricing.
  • Supplier – Major global suppliers offer cost advantages compared to smaller manufacturers due to higher production volumes.
  • Geography – Prices vary across regions with Europe and North America being higher priced markets compared to Asia.

For critical applications, buyers should focus on quality rather than lowest cost while sourcing TC4 powder.

Storage and Handling of TC4 Powder

TC4 powder requires careful storage and handling:

  • Should be stored in sealed containers under inert gas like argon to prevent oxidation.
  • Avoid accumulation of fine powder to minimize risk of dust explosions.
  • Use proper PPE, ventilation, grounding and safety practices during powder handling.
  • Prevent contact between powder and ignition sources due to flammability hazard.
  • Follow applicable safety guidelines from supplier SDS.

Care should be taken when handling this reactive fine titanium alloy powder.

Inspection and Testing of TC4 Powder

Key quality control tests performed on TC4 powder:

  • Chemical analysis using ICP-OES or XRF to ensure composition meets specifications.
  • Particle size distribution using laser diffraction as per ASTM B822 standard.
  • Morphology analysis through SEM imaging.
  • Powder flow rate measurement using Hall flowmeter as per ASTM B213 standard.
  • Density measurement by helium pycnometry.
  • Impurity analysis through inert gas fusion or ICP-MS.
  • Microstructure characterization by X-ray diffraction.

Thorough testing ensures batch consistency and powder quality for the intended application.

Comparison Between TC4 and Ti6Al4V Powders

TC4 and Ti6Al4V are two titanium alloy powders compared:

Parameter TC4 Ti6Al4V
Aluminum content 5.5-6.75% 5.5-6.75%
Vanadium content 3.5-4.5% 3.5-4.5%
Density Higher Lower
Tensile strength Higher Lower
Ductility Lower Higher
Oxidation resistance Similar Similar
Cost Higher Lower


TC4 provides higher strength while Ti6Al4V offers better ductility. TC4 is suitable for more demanding applications despite higher cost.

TC4 Powder FAQs

Q: How is TC4 powder produced?

A: TC4 powder is commercially produced using gas atomization, plasma rotating electrode process, and hydride-dehydride process. Gas atomization offers the best control of particle characteristics.

Q: What are the main applications of TC4 powder?

A: The major applications of TC4 powder include additive manufacturing, thermal spray coatings, metal injection molding, and powder metallurgy to manufacture high-strength lightweight structural parts.

Q: What is the typical TC4 powder size used for selective laser melting?

A: For SLM process, the ideal TC4 powder size range is 15-45 microns with spherical morphology and good powder flow and packing density.

Q: Does TC4 powder require special handling precautions?

A: Yes, it is highly reactive and requires careful handling under inert atmosphere using proper ventilation, grounding, PPE to prevent fire or explosion hazards.

Q: Where can I purchase TC4 powder suitable for aerospace applications?

A: For aerospace parts needing high strength, TC4 powder can be purchased from leading manufacturers including AP&C, TLS Technik, Tekna, Sandvik Osprey and Advanced Powders.

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