전자빔 적층 가공


Electron beam additive manufacturing (EBAM) is a metal 3D printing process that uses an electron beam energy source to fuse materials. This guide examines EBAM systems, processes, materials, applications, benefits, and considerations for adopting this technology.

Introduction to Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing

Electron beam additive manufacturing (EBAM) is a type of metal 3D printing that uses a high power electron beam as the energy source to fuse metallic feedstock into fully dense parts layer by layer directly from CAD data.

Key attributes of EBAM technology:

  • Uses electron beam power source to melt materials
  • Builds parts by adding metal powder layer-by-layer
  • Creates near-net shape parts with high density
  • Typical materials are titanium, nickel alloys, steel
  • Larger build volumes than other metal AM processes
  • High deposition rate for faster builds
  • Average part accuracy of ±0.3mm
  • Low residual stress compared to laser processes
  • Ideal for large, complex metal parts
  • Reduces waste versus subtractive techniques

EBAM enables innovative designs not possible with conventional manufacturing. However, as with any additive process, there are distinct design and application considerations.

어떻게 전자빔 적층 가공 공장

The EBAM process consists of:

  1. Depositing and leveling thin layer of metal powder
  2. Scanning electron beam to selectively melt areas
  3. Lowering build plate and repeating layering/melting
  4. Removal of completed parts from powder bed
  5. Post-processing as needed

An electron beam gun generates a focused beam under vacuum conditions. Beam power, speed, pattern and other parameters are precisely controlled to fuse material.

EBAM systems require a vacuum chamber, powder handling, electron gun, controls, and other subsystems.

전자빔 적층 제조

EBAM Equipment Manufacturers

Leading global suppliers of industrial EBAM systems include:

제조업체모델빌드 크기재료가격 범위
GE 애디티브Arcam EBM Spectra H1000 x 600 x 500 mmTi, Ni, CoCr, Al, Cu, Steels$1.5m - $2m
스키아키에밤 3001830 x 1220 x 910 mmTi, Inconel, stainless$1.5M – $3M
Velo3D사파이어680 x 380 x 380 mmTi, Inconel$1M – $2M
Nano DimensionDragonFly LDM330 x 330 x 330 mm구리$0.5M – $1M

System selection depends on production needs, materials, accuracy requirements, and budget. Partnering with an experienced service provider is an alternative to purchasing equipment directly.

EBAM Process Characteristics

EBAM involves complex thermal, mechanical, and material interactions. Key process characteristics include:

Electron Beam – Power, beam diameter, current, scan speed, focus

가루 – Material, shape, size distribution, layer thickness

진공 – Required pressure levels, gas impurities

온도 – Preheat, melt pool dynamics, cooling rate

Metadata – Build plate, rake system, shielding

스캔 전략 – Melt pool patterns, beam oscillations

후처리 – Heat treat, HIP, machining, finishing

Understanding relationships between parameters is critical to achieve high quality EBAM parts.

EBAM Design Guidelines

Proper EBAM part design practices include:

  • Design with additive manufacturing principles in mind
  • Use thin walls and lattice structures for weight reduction
  • Minimize unsupported overhangs which require supports
  • Orient parts to avoid stresses leading to warpage
  • 형상의 열 수축 효과 고려
  • Design geometry to ease powder removal
  • Engineer surfaces for functionality rather than appearance
  • Accommodate minimum wall thickness and feature size
  • Allow for post-processing stock on surfaces
  • Simulate builds and thermal effects for complex parts
  • Design fixturing and interfaces for powder bed removal

Simulation and modeling tools help predict residual stresses and deformation.

EBAM Materials

A range of metals can be processed with 전자빔 적층 제조:

범주일반적인 합금
티타늄Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-4V ELI, Commercially Pure Titanium
니켈 초합금Inconel 718, Inconel 625, Haynes 282
스테인리스 스틸304, 316, 17-4PH, 15-5PH
공구강H13, Maraging Steels
알루미늄AlSi10Mg, Scalmalloy
귀금속Gold, Platinum
구리CuCrZr, Cu, Copper Nickel Alloys
코발트 크롬CoCrMo, Stellite

Material properties depend heavily on EBAM process parameters and post-treatment.

Key EBAM Applications

EBAM enables performance improvements across industries:

산업Typical EBAM Applications
항공우주Aircraft structures, turbines, launch hardware
전력 생성Hot gas path components, housings
석유 및 가스Valves, pumps, compressors, tooling
자동차Lightweighting parts, heat exchangers
의료정형외과용 임플란트, 수술 기구
해양Impellers, propellers, complex castings
화학Heat exchangers, stirrers, pressure vessels

Benefits over conventional manufacturing include:

  • Reduced waste from buy-to-fly ratio of 1:1
  • Shorter lead time from digital process
  • Combined assemblies into single parts
  • Customized geometries unsuited for machining
  • Improved performance from complex structures
  • Scalable production volumes once qualified

EBAM creates opportunities for next-generation product designs not feasible by other means.

전자빔 적층 제조

Pros and Cons of EBAM


  • Large complex metal parts in a single piece
  • Strong and light components from lattice designs
  • Eliminates need for expensive dies or tooling
  • Reduced material waste compared to subtractive techniques
  • Relatively fast build rate compared to other AM processes
  • Cost effective at medium volumes of 100-10,000 units
  • Consistent metallurgy from rapid solidification
  • Combines assemblies into single parts
  • On demand production and customizable designs
  • Geometry freedom beyond machining constraints


  • 폴리머 3D 프린팅보다 장비 비용이 높음
  • Restricted to vacuum compatible materials
  • Lower accuracy and surface finish than machining
  • Post-processing often required to achieve properties
  • Production of scrap powder requiring recycling
  • Process development and trials needed
  • Facility considerations for high power needs
  • Thermal stresses may cause part distortion
  • Constraints on overhangs and minimum features
  • Size limitations from build chamber envelope

When suitable for application requirements, EBAM enables high value product improvements.

Implementing EBAM Technology

Key considerations when adopting EBAM include:

  • Identifying applications where EBAM capabilities provide advantage
  • Budgeting significant capital investment for EBAM system
  • Developing rigorous qualification protocols and standards
  • Understanding regulatory requirements for end use applications
  • Hiring personnel with powder bed expertise or partnering with service providers
  • Allowing time and resources for process trials and optimizations
  • Implementing powder handling procedures and ventilation
  • Providing suitable facilities infrastructure and power capabilities
  • Budgeting for secondary processing like heat treating
  • Performing mechanical testing to validate properties

Applications best suited for initial trials are less critical and lower risk.

Cost Savings with EBAM

The business case for EBAM depends on:

  • High equipment cost around $1 million to $3 million
  • Labor for process development and production
  • Cost of raw metallic powder materials
  • Secondary finishing operations
  • Facilities, powder handling infrastructure
  • Reduced waste relative to subtractive processes
  • Consolidating subassemblies into single parts
  • Shorter development timelines than conventional techniques
  • Becoming economical at volumes around 100-10,000 parts
  • Highest savings for complex geometries adding value

Manufacturers must outweigh higher AM equipment costs by manufacturing benefits.

EBAM Compared to Other Processes

프로세스Comparison to EBAM
CNC 가공EBAM enables complex geometries unmachinable through subtractive process. No hard tooling required.
금속 사출 성형EBAM eliminates high tooling costs. Better material properties than MIM.
다이 캐스팅EBAM has lower tooling costs. No size limitations. Very complex geometries achievable.
시트 적층EBAM creates fully dense isotropic material versus laminated composites.
바인더 분사EBAM delivers fully dense final parts compared to porous binder jetted green parts.
SLMSLM has finer resolution while EBAM has faster build rates. Both create dense metal parts.

Each process offers specific advantages based on the application, batch size, accuracy needs, and performance requirements.

Future Outlook for EBAM

The future is bright for expanded adoption of EBAM driven by:

  • Broader range of production-grade alloys
  • Larger build envelopes enabling bigger parts
  • Faster build rates for increased throughput
  • Improved finish and dimensional accuracy
  • Declining costs as technology matures
  • Further automation of pre/post processing
  • Hybrid systems integrating machining
  • Advanced in-process monitoring systems
  • Qualification for demanding industries like aerospace
  • Design optimization leveraging EBAM capabilities

As the technology progresses, EBAM will transform manufacturing across a widening range of industries.

자주 묻는 질문

What materials are used in EBAM?

Titanium, nickel alloys, tool steels, stainless steels, aluminum alloys, and precious metals can be processed.

What is the accuracy and finish of EBAM parts?

Dimensional accuracy of ±0.3mm is typical, with surface roughness around 25-125μm Ra as-built.

What post-processing is used for EBAM parts?

Heat treating, HIP, and machining may be used. Plasma spray coating is also common.

How big of parts can EBAM produce?

Common build volumes range from 500mm x 500mm x 500mm up to 2m x 1m x 1m for large systems.

What are the benefits over subtractive methods?

EBAM generates near net-shape parts with reduced waste and consolidates assemblies into single complex components.

What industries use EBAM?

Aerospace, energy, automotive, oil and gas, and medical sectors are early adopters of EBAM.

What expertise is needed to operate EBAM equipment?

Skilled technicians experienced in powder bed processes, metallurgy, and post-processing are required.

어떤 안전 예방 조치가 필요하나요?

Ventilation, monitoring equipment, personnel protective equipment, and safe powder handling are critical.

How does cost compare to conventional manufacturing?

EBAM becomes cost effective around mid-volume production of 100-10,000 units for complex designs.

Can you briefly explain the EBAM process?

EBAM deposits metallic powder in layers which an electron beam melts selectively layer-by-layer based on CAD data to build a part.

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