Bubuk Bulat: Gambaran Umum, Jenis, Harga

Daftar Isi

Ikhtisar

Spherical powder refers to metallic or ceramic powders with a rounded morphology produced by specialized atomization processes. Compared to irregular powder particles, spherical powders offer benefits like excellent flowability, higher packing density, and reduced inner-particle friction. This makes them ideal for demanding industrial applications using powder metallurgy, thermal spraying, metal additive manufacturing, and ceramic processing.

This comprehensive guide covers different types of spherical powders, their properties, manufacturing methods, key applications, specifications, suppliers, handling procedures, equipment maintenance, selection criteria for vendors, pros and cons, and answers frequently asked questions.

Jenis Spherical Powder

The main types of spherical powder based on material and production method include:

Bahan

  • Metal powders – stainless steel, tool steel, superalloys, titanium, aluminum etc.
  • Ceramic powders – alumina, zirconia, silica, carbides, nitrides etc.
  • Composite/alloy powders – nickel-based, cobalt-based, Fe-based etc.

Metode produksi

  • Gas atomized powders
  • Plasma atomized powders
  • Electrode induction-melting gas atomization (EIGA)
  • Rotating electrode process (REP)
  • Proses elektroda berputar plasma (PREP)
  • Thermal spray powders

Gas atomization is the most widely used process but methods like PREP yield superior sphericity and smooth surface morphologies. The production method controls the final powder characteristics.

spherical powder

Properties and Applications

Properties and typical applications of major spherical powder types:

Baja tahan karat

  • High hardness and corrosion resistance
  • Valves, pumps, medical devices

Baja perkakas

  • Ketahanan aus yang sangat baik
  • Cutting tools, dies, punches

Superalloy

  • Withstand high temperatures and stresses
  • Turbine blades, aerospace components

Titanium

  • Rasio kekuatan-terhadap-berat yang tinggi
  • Aerospace fasteners, biomedical implants

Aluminium

  • Lightweight, excellent thermal conductivity
  • Automotive parts, heat sinks

Keramik

  • Kekerasan, keausan, dan ketahanan korosi yang tinggi
  • Bearings, seals, armor coatings

Spherical morphology improves powder packing density and flow in addition to the inherent properties of the base material.

Manufacturing Methods

Common methods for producing spherical powders:

Atomisasi Gas

  • Metal alloy melted and atomized by inert gas jets
  • Lower investment cost
  • 10 – 150 μm size range

Atomisasi Plasma

  • Use of plasma energy to melt and atomize
  • Finer powder down to 5 μm
  • Higher purity, more spherical

EIGA

  • Electrodes inductively melted in atomization chamber
  • Rapid solidification of fine droplets
  • Control over size, morphology

PREP

  • Rotating electrode melted by plasma torches
  • Centrifugal disintegration into fine powder
  • Smooth spherical shape

Semprotan termal

  • Feedstock wires/rods atomized by hot gas
  • Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys
  • Rougher surfaces than other methods

Spesifikasi

Typical specifications for spherical powder include:

ParameterSpesifikasi
Ukuran partikel10 - 150 μm
Bentuk partikelBulat
Laju aliran25 - 35 s/50g
Kepadatan yang tampak40 – 60%
Kerapatan ketukanUp to 90% theoretical
Oksida permukaan< 1% by weight
Gas sisaMinimized

Meeting size distribution, high sphericity, smooth surface, and composition requirements is critical. Smaller sizes improve densification while larger sizes reduce costs.

Pertimbangan Desain

Key design factors for components using spherical powder:

  • Toleransi dimensi – Accounting for sintering shrinkage
  • Surface finish requirements – Minimal post-processing
  • Sifat mekanik – Matching material and process to properties needed
  • Production costs – Optimizing part design to balance performance and cost
  • Secondary operations – Avoiding large machining allowances
  • Assembly requirements – Designing joining surfaces, interlocking features
  • Kepatuhan terhadap standar – For aerospace, biomedical etc. applications

The design freedom enabled by advanced manufacturing processes like additive manufacturing allow more optimized designs not possible with wrought metal.

spherical powder

Consolidation Processes

Common powder consolidation processes suitable for spherical powders:

  • Manufaktur aditif – Selective laser melting, electron beam melting etc. offer maximum flexibility
  • Cetakan injeksi logam – High volume production of small, complex parts
  • Cold/hot isostatic pressing – Produces net shape or near-net shape parts
  • Tekan dan sinter – Conventional powder metallurgy process combining shaping and sintering
  • Semprotan termal – Deposits molten powder onto a prepared substrate
  • Slurry-based methods – Slip casting, tape casting, electrophoretic deposition etc. for ceramics

Spherical shape improves powder packing and flow during processing, enabling high density and uniform microstructures.

Pemasok dan Harga

Leading global suppliers of spherical powders include:

PemasokBahanKisaran Harga
SandvikAlloy steels, stainless steels$50-200/kg
Aditif Tukang KayuTool steels, superalloys$70-250/kg
HöganäsBaja tahan karat$45-180/kg
PraxairTitanium, superalloy$100-350/kg
Teknologi LPWAluminum alloys, composites$60-220/kg

Prices depend on alloy composition, quality, lot size, and purchase quantity. Small R&D quantities are more expensive than bulk production volumes.

Handling and Storage

Guidelines for safe handling and storage of bubuk bulat:

  • Store sealed containers in a cool, dry, inert atmosphere to prevent oxidation and contamination
  • Limit exposure to moisture to avoid powder agglomeration
  • Use mild steel or plastic containers instead of aluminum to prevent reaction
  • Ensure containers are properly grounded to avoid static charge accumulation

-Handle containers and powders gently to prevent particle damage during transport and transfer

  • Avoid sparks, flames, ignition sources near storage and handling areas
  • Install appropriate ventilation and dust collection equipment
  • Use appropriate PPE for handling fine powders – gloves, respirators, eye protection

Proper procedures prevent powder property changes that can negatively impact consolidation and final part properties.

Equipment Maintenance

Maintenance tips for key powder handling systems:

Sieves:

  • Replace damaged mesh screens to avoid tears and openings
  • Clean sieves regularly to prevent clogging which can lead to particle damage
  • Check vibration amplitude and time settings to prevent work hardening

Hoppers and feeders:

  • Inspect outlet ports for buildup and remove any material blocking flow
  • Verify feeder settings match powder properties to ensure reliable flow
  • Check hopper linings for wear and replace if deteriorated

Mixing vessels:

  • Replace worn baffles and intensifiers for homogeneous mixing without segregation
  • Inspect blade condition and repair/replace damaged items
  • Verify gaskets and seals to prevent powder leaks during operation

Tooling:

  • Monitor dimensional accuracy and repair/replace as needed
  • Apply lubricant on presses and dies per schedule to ensure easy release
  • Verify heating elements and temperature controls on furnaces

Selecting Spherical Powder Pemasok

Key factors in selecting suppliers:

  • Keahlian teknis in materials, manufacturing processes, part design etc. to support customers
  • Range of powder options including different materials, sizes, morphologies and coatings
  • Jaminan kualitas yang ketat covering chemical analysis, microscopic inspection, process control etc.
  • Kapasitas produksi to meet demands in a timely manner
  • Services offered like sampling, prototyping, testing, analysis etc.
  • Industry reputation for consistently supplying high quality powders
  • Sertifikasi such as ISO 9001, AS9100, ISO 13485 etc.
  • Competitive pricing combined with value-added services and customer support
  • Shipping and logistics capabilities for timely delivery with minimal lead times

The right partner provides both spherical powders tailored to needs as well as technical expertise for success.

Advantages vs Limitations

Keuntungan

  • Excellent powder flow and packing density
  • Improved sintered density and microstructure
  • Reduced internal stresses during compaction
  • Allows complex geometries to be manufactured
  • Consistent metallurgical properties
  • Good surface finish on sintered parts

Keterbatasan

  • More expensive than irregular powder
  • Require advanced manufacturing techniques
  • Limited sizes available for very fine powders
  • Controlling particle size distribution can be difficult
  • Some materials are challenging to atomize into spherical powder
spherical powder

Pertanyaan Umum

What are the main advantages of using spherical powder?

The main benefits are excellent flowability for ease of handling, high packing density for improved compaction, lower interparticle friction allowing complex geometries, and consistent metallurgical properties.

Which materials are commonly available as spherical powder?

Common materials include stainless steels, tool steels, superalloys, titanium alloys, aluminum alloys, nickel-based alloys, and ceramic powders.

What industries typically use spherical powder?

Key industries include aerospace, medical, automotive, defense, energy, electronics, and industrial equipment manufacturing.

What is the typical size range for spherical powders?

Conventional gas atomized spherical powders range from around 10-150 microns. Specialized techniques can produce submicron to nano-scale spherical powders.

How much more expensive is spherical powder compared to irregular powder?

The premium for spherical shape is typically 20-50% over irregular powders. However, the benefits often justify the higher cost for critical applications.

Kesimpulan

With their characteristic rounded shape and smooth surface, bubuk bulat enable higher density and superior flow compared to irregular powders. Their consistent particle characteristics impart excellent compressibility, compactability, and sinterability across a range of metals and ceramics. Continued development of atomization processes makes spherical powders available in a wider selection of materials and sizes than ever before. Part design and process optimization to take full advantage of the benefits of starting with spherical powder can yield high performance parts cost-effectively.

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