How the Gas Atomization Process Works



Gas atomization is a metal powder production method that uses high-velocity inert gas jets to disintegrate a molten metal stream into fine spherical powder particles. The gas atomization process achieves excellent control over powder particle size distribution, morphology, purity, and microstructure.

Key attributes of gas-atomized powder include spherical particle shape, high purity, fine sizes down to 10 microns, and uniform composition. Gas atomization facilitates advanced powder-based manufacturing techniques like metal injection molding, additive manufacturing, and powder metallurgy pressing and sintering.

This guide provides a comprehensive overview of the gas atomization process and powder. It covers atomization methods, particle formation, process parameters, equipment, applicable alloys, powder characteristics, product specifications, applications, and suppliers. Helpful comparison tables are included to summarize technical details.

gas atomization process

어떻게 가스 분무 프로세스 공장

Gas atomization converts molten alloy into powder using the following fundamental steps:

Gas Atomization Process Stages

  • 녹는 – Alloy is melted in an induction furnace and superheated above its liquidus temperature
  • 붓기 – Molten metal stream poured into an atomization chamber
  • 원자화 – High velocity inert gas jets disintegrate the metal into fine droplets
  • 고형화 – Metal droplets rapidly solidify into powder particles as they fall through the chamber
  • 컬렉션 – Powder particles collected in a cyclone separator at bottom of tower

The key phenomenon occurs when the kinetic energy of the gas jets overcomes the metal’s surface tension to shear the liquid stream into droplets. These droplets freeze into powder particles with spherical morphology.

Careful process control allows tailored powder particle sizes, purity, and microstructures.

Methods of Gas Atomization

There are two primary methods of gas atomization used in industry:

Gas Atomization Methods

방법설명장점제한 사항
Close-coupled atomizationNozzle in close proximity to melt pour pointCompact design, lower gas usePotential melt contamination from nozzle
Free-fall atomizationNozzle located below pour pointReduced melt contaminationRequires taller atomization tower

Close-coupled designs recycle the atomizing gas but risk some melt oxidation. Free-fall offers cleaner atmosphere with less risk of nozzle reaction.

Additional variants include multiple gas nozzles, ultrasonic atomization, centrifugal atomization, and coaxial nozzle designs for specialized applications.

Gas Atomization Nozzle Designs

Various nozzle designs create the high velocity gas jets needed for atomization:

Gas Atomization Nozzle Types

Nozzle설명Gas Flow Pattern물방울 크기
De LavalConverging-diverging nozzleSupersonicLarge, wide distribution
ConicalSimple conical orificeSonicMedium
SlitElongated slit orificeSonicSmall
MultipleArray of micro-nozzlesSonic/supersonicVery small, narrow distribution

De Laval nozzles use gas acceleration to supersonic velocities but have complex geometry. Sonic nozzles with simplified shapes offer more flexibility.

Smaller droplets and tightly controlled size distribution are achieved by using multiple micro-nozzles or slit configurations.

Powder Formation and Solidification

The shearing of molten metal into droplets and subsequent solidification follow distinct mechanisms:

Powder Formation Stages

  • Breakup – Rayleigh jet instability causes perturbations and droplet formation
  • 왜곡 – Droplets elongate into ligaments due to air drag forces
  • Rupture – Ligaments breakdown into droplets close to final size
  • 고형화 – Rapid cooling via gas contact and radiation forms solid particles
  • Deceleration – Loss of velocity as particles move down through atomization chamber

The combined effects of surface tension, turbulence, and air drag determine final particle sizes and morphology. Maximum particle cooling rates over 1,000,000 °C/s quench metastable phases.

프로세스 매개변수

Key gas atomization process parameters include:

가스 분무 프로세스 매개변수

매개변수일반적인 범위Effect on Powder
가스 압력2-10 MPaIncreasing pressure reduces particle size
Gas velocity300-1200 m/sHigher velocity produces finer particles
가스 유량0.5-4 m3/minIncreases flow for higher throughput and finer sizes
Melt superheat150-400°CHigher superheat reduces satellites and improves powder flow
Melt pour rate10-150 kg/minLower pour rates improve particle size distribution
Melt stream diameter3~8mmLarger stream allows higher throughput
Separation distance0.3-1 mGreater distance reduces satellite content

Balancing these parameters allows control of powder particle size, shape, production rate, and other characteristics.

Alloy Systems for Gas Atomization

Gas atomization can process almost any alloy into powder form including:

Alloys Suitable for Gas Atomization

  • 티타늄 합금
  • 니켈 초합금
  • 코발트 초합금
  • 스테인리스 스틸
  • 공구강
  • Low alloy steels
  • Iron and nickel base alloys
  • 귀금속
  • Intermetallics

Gas atomization requires melting temperatures below the decomposition point of the atomizing gas. Typical gases include argon, nitrogen, and helium.

Refractory alloys with very high melting points like tungsten can be challenging to atomize and often require specialized processing.

Most alloys require melt superheating well above the liquidus temperature to maintain sufficient fluidity for atomization into finely dispersed droplets.

Characteristics of Gas Atomized Powder

Typical characteristics of gas atomized powder:

Gas Atomized Powder Characteristics

파티클 모폴로지고도로 구형Excellent flowability, packing density
입자 크기 분포Adjustable in 10-150 μm rangeControls pressed density and sintering behavior
Particle size spanCan achieve tight distributionsProvides uniform component properties
Chemical purityTypically >99.5% excluding planned alloysAvoid contamination from nozzle reactions
산소 함량<1000 ppmCritical for high performance alloys
겉보기 밀도Up to 60% of theoreticalIndicative of pressibility and handling
Internal porosity매우 낮은Good for microstructural homogeneity
Surface morphologySmooth with some satellitesIndicates process stability

The spherical shape and adjustable size distribution facilitate usage in secondary powder consolidation processes. Tight control over oxygen and chemistry enables high performance alloys.

Specifications for Gas Atomized Powders

International standard specifications help define:

  • 입자 크기 분포
  • Apparent density ranges
  • Hall flow rates
  • Acceptable oxygen and nitrogen levels
  • Allowable microstructure and porosity
  • 화학 성분 제한
  • 샘플링 절차

This supports quality control and reproducible powder behavior.

Specifications for Gas Atomized Powders

표준재료매개변수Test Methods
ASTM B964티타늄 합금Particle size, chemistry, microstructureX-ray diffraction, microscopy
AMS 4992Aerospace titanium alloysParticle size, oxygen contentSieve analysis, inert gas fusion
ASTM B823Tool steel powderApparent density, flow rateHall flowmeter, Scott volumeter
SAE AMS 5050니켈 합금Particle size, morphologyLaser diffraction, SEM
MPIF 04Many standard alloysApparent density, flow rateHall flowmeter, tapped density

Specifications are tailored to critical application requirements in aerospace, automotive, medical, and other quality-driven industries.

Applications of Gas Atomized Powder

Gas atomized powders enable manufacturing of high performance components via:

  • 금속 사출 성형(MIM)
  • Additive Manufacturing (AM)
  • 열간 등방성 프레스(HIP)
  • Powder Forging
  • Thermal and Cold Spray
  • Powder Metallurgy Pressing and Sintering

Benefits versus wrought materials:

  • Complex geometries with fine features
  • 우수한 기계적 성질
  • Near full density consolidation
  • Novel and customized alloys
  • Range of material options

Gas atomization excels at producing spherical, flowing powders optimal for automated processing of intricate components with high quality standards across industries.

Global Suppliers of Gas Atomized Powders

Prominent global suppliers of gas atomized powders include:

Gas Atomized Powder Manufacturers

ATI 파우더 메탈Titanium, nickel, tool steel alloysBroad alloy range, high volumes
프렉스에어 표면 기술티타늄, 니켈, 코발트 합금Wide alloy selection, toll processing
샌드빅 오스프리Stainless steels, low alloy steelsSpecialists in ferrous materials
회가나스공구강, 스테인리스강Custom alloys, additive manufacturing powders
목수 첨가제티타늄, 니켈, 코발트 합금Custom alloys, specialized particle sizes

Smaller regional suppliers also offer gas atomized powders, often servicing niche alloys or applications.

Many providers also undertake sieving, blending, coating, and other powder post-processing operations.

Advantages vs. Limitations of Gas Atomization

Gas Atomization – Pros and Cons

장점제한 사항
Spherical powder morphologyHigher upfront capital costs
Controlled particle size distributionsRequires high purity inert gas
Applicable to many alloy systemsRefractory alloys challenging to atomize
Clean powder chemistry and microstructureCan experience nozzle erosion
Rapid powder quenching preserves metastable phasesRequires melt superheating well above liquidus
Continuous powder production processPowder shape limits green strength

The spherical shape and fine sizes of gas atomized powder provide distinct advantages but come at a higher operational cost versus simpler mechanical comminution processes.

Selecting Gas Atomized Powder

Key aspects when selecting gas atomized powder:

  • Desired chemistry and alloy composition
  • Target particle size distribution
  • Suitable apparent and tap density ranges
  • Oxygen and nitrogen limits dictated by application
  • Flow characteristics for automated powder handling
  • Sampling procedures to ensure representativeness
  • Vendor technical expertise and customer service
  • Total cost considerations

Testing prototype builds helps qualify new alloys and gas atomized powders for an application. Collaborating closely with the powder producer enables optimization.

자주 묻는 질문

What is the smallest particle size that gas atomization can produce?

Specialized nozzles can produce single-digit micron powder down to 1-5 microns. However, ultrafine powder has very low apparent density and exhibits strong interparticle Van der Waals forces, requiring careful handling.

What causes powder satellites during gas atomization?

Satellites form when droplets are too large or collide and partially rejoin before fully solidifying. Higher superheat, lower pour rates, and increased separation distance all help reduce satellites.

Why is high purity inert gas required for gas atomization?

High velocity gas jets can erode metal from the nozzle over time and contaminate powder. Reactive gases like nitrogen and oxygen also negatively affect powder purity and alloy performance.

How does gas atomization compare to water atomization?

Water atomization produces more irregular powder at larger sizes of 50-150 microns typically. Gas atomization allows finer sizes down to 10 microns with spherical morphologies preferred for pressing and sintering applications.

What is centrifugal atomization?

In centrifugal atomization, molten metal is poured into a spinning disk that throws off fine molten metal droplets that solidify into powder. This method offers higher production rates than gas atomization but reduced powder size and shape control.

Can you switch alloys quickly during gas atomization?

Yes, with specialized equipment the melt stream can be changed rapidly to produce composite and alloyed powders. However, cross-contamination between alloys should be minimized through chamber purging.


The gas atomization process produces spherical, flowing metallic powders with tightly controlled particle size distribution, purity, and microstructural characteristics optimal for advanced powder consolidation processes across critical applications. Careful manipulation of process parameters and specialized nozzle designs allow extensive control over final powder characteristics. With continued development, gas atomization provides engineers greater ability to manufacture high-performance components in creative new ways.

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