Additive Fertigung von Aluminium


Aluminium ist ein beliebter Metallwerkstoff für die additive Fertigung, der wegen seines guten Verhältnisses von Festigkeit zu Gewicht, seiner hervorragenden Korrosionsbeständigkeit, seiner thermischen Eigenschaften und seiner mechanischen Leistungsfähigkeit geschätzt wird. Als Additive Fertigung von Aluminium quality and printer capabilities advance, new high-value applications across aerospace, automotive, consumer products and architecture can benefit from complex aluminum part production.

This overview covers the advantages of common aluminum alloys used in AM processes like laser powder bed fusion (PBF-LB) and direct energy deposition (DED), along with their corresponding properties, post-processing procedures, applications, and leading suppliers. Comparison tables highlight the tradeoffs between different aluminum materials and AM methods.

Additive Fertigung von Aluminium

Overview of additive manufacturing aluminum

Key benefits aluminum offers for AM applications:

  • Lightweight – low density helps reduce printed part weight
  • High Strength – many aluminum alloys have yield strengths exceeding 500 MPa
  • Excellent Corrosion Resistance – protective oxide outer layer
  • High Thermal Conductivity – heat dissipation potential
  • Good Elevated Temperature Properties – up to 300-400°C
  • Electrically Conductive – useful for electronics applications
  • Low Cost – less expensive than titanium or nickel alloys
  • Recyclability – powders can be reused reducing material costs

Combined with the design freedom of AM, aluminum enables lighter, better performing components across industries. Refinements in aluminum powder production allow expanded capabilities to fabricate dense parts rivaling cast and wrought metallurgy.

Aluminum Alloy Powder Materials for AM

Aluminum alloys optimized for additive manufacturing utilize controlled powder particle production paired with intelligent alloying additions to enhance properties.

Common Aluminum AM Alloy Compositions

Scalmalloy®4-60.1-0.3<0.1<0.10.4-0.7Zr Sc

Silicon is a common strengthener. Trace elements like Fe, Cu, Mg optimize properties. Unique alloys like Scalmalloy® use scandium-zirconium precipitate nanoparticles to achieve ultrahigh strengths exceeding wrought alloys.

Key Characteristics of Aluminum AM Alloys

LegierungZugfestigkeitDichteLayer Penetration Depth
AlSi10Mg400-440 MPa2,67 g/cc70-100 μm
AlSi7Mg0.6420-500 MPa2.66 g/cc60-80 μm
Scalmalloy®Over 550 MPa2,68 g/cc50-70 μm

Higher strengths limit achievable single layer depth before requiring remelting cycles.

Spezifikationen für Additive Fertigung von Aluminium

Critical powder characteristics like flowability, particle shape and chemistry purity dictate aluminum AM processing quality.

Size Distribution Standards for Al Powder

MessungTypische Spezifikation
Größenbereich15 – 45 μm
PartikelformMeist kugelförmig
Median Size (D50)25-35 μm

Tight control over particle size distribution, morphology and contamination levels ensures dense defect-free printed parts.

Chemistry Standards for Aluminum Print Powders

ElementComposition Limit
Oxygen (O2)0,15% max
Nitrogen (N2)0,25% max
Hydrogen (H2)0,05% max

Limits on gaseous impurities prevent extensive porosity or internal voids in printed aluminum components.

Post-Processing Procedures for Additive Fertigung von Aluminium

Common post-processing methods for additive manufactured aluminum parts include:

Aluminum AM Post-Processing Techniques


T6 heat treatment – Solution heating & aging cycles to improve strength, hardness & ductility. Essential for highest mechanical performance with many Al alloys.


Machining, bead blasting, or polishing exterior surfaces provides dimensional accuracy and smooth surface finish. Anodizing can colorize and protect aluminum surfaces.

HIP (Heiß-Isostatisches Pressen)

High temperature + pressure minimizes internal voids and porosity. Useful for leak-critical applications but an added process step.


CNC machining features like precision bearing surfaces or threads into net shape AM parts. Up to 60% machining reductions achieved versus traditional manufacturing.

Additive Manufacturing Techniques for Aluminum

Modern metal 3D printers leverage selective laser melting, electron beams or binder jetting to construct complex aluminum components unattainable with conventional methods.

Comparison of Aluminum AM Processes

Pulverbettfusion - LaserLaser selectively fuses regions of metal powder bedGood accuracy, material properties and surface finishRelatively slow build speeds
Pulverbettfusion - ElektronenstrahlElectron beam melting in high vacuumExcellent consistency, high densityLimited material options, high equipment cost
Direkte EnergiedepositionFocused heat source melts metal powder sprayLarger components, repairsPoorer surface finish, geometry constraints
Binder JettingBinder jetted to join powder particlesVery fast build speeds, lower equipment costWeaker mechanical performance, secondary sintering needed

Laser based powder bed approaches offer the best all-around capabilities for most functional aluminum components today.

Aluminum AM Part Applications

The lightweight, high strength and thermal characteristics aluminum AM enables suits the demands of:

Industries Using Additive Manufactured Aluminum Parts

Luft- und Raumfahrt – brackets, stiffeners, heat exchangers, UAV components

Automobilindustrie – custom brackets, powertrain, chassis and drivetrain systems

Industriell – lightweight robotics and tooling, prototyping

Architektur – ornamentation, custom metallic art

Verbraucher – electronics, customized products

Aluminum AM unlocks new design possibilities perfect for complex mission critical applications.

Suppliers of Aluminum Print Powders

High purity aluminum alloy powders specifically optimized for additive manufacturing processes are offered by major metallic material suppliers:

Leading Aluminum Powder Companies

UnternehmenCommon Alloy GradesTypical Pricing/Kg
AP&CA20X, A205, custom alloys$55 – $155
Sandvik FischadlerAlSi10Mg, AlSi7Mg0.6, Scalmalloy®$45 – $220
LPW-TechnologieAlSi10Mg, Scalmalloy®$85 – $250
PraxairAlSi10Mg, AlSi7Mg0,6$50 – $120

Prices vary based on alloy choice, powder size specs, lot quantities and certifications required.

Additive Fertigung von Aluminium


What aluminum alloy is best suited for laser powder bed fusion AM?

AlSi10Mg offers the best all-around printability, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance for most applications with laser powder bed 3D printing of aluminum alloys.

What particle size distribution is recommended for aluminum AM powders?

A Gaussian curve with average size between 25-35 μm provides optimal powder bed density and uniform melting behavior with most common laser powder bed fusion machines.

Why is Scalmalloy considered an advanced aluminum alloy?

Scalmalloy leverages a uniform precipitation strengthened structure for unmatched strength while retaining decent elongation and fracture toughness through a novel scandium containing composition unattainable with conventional aluminum metallurgy.

Should heat treating be used post additive manufacturing with aluminum?

Yes, heat treatment improves the microstructure and enhances mechanical properties for many aluminum AM alloys. A typical T6 treatment involves solution heating followed by artificial aging resulting in significant property improvements from precipitation strengthening phenomena.

What surface finishes are possible with AM aluminum parts?

After some machining, grinding, sanding and/or polishing operations, surface roughness (Ra) values under 10 μm are attainable for additive manufactured aluminum components depending on the AM process used. More intensive finishing can provide optical grade mirror surfaces. Common finishes include anodizing as well for enhanced corrosion or wear properties combined with coloring options.

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